Tafseer‎ > ‎

97: Al-Qadr


إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَاهُ فِي لَيْلَةِ الْقَدْرِ
We have indeed revealed this (Quran) in the Night of Qadr

وَمَا أَدْرَاكَ مَا لَيْلَةُ الْقَدْرِ
what will explain to thee what the night of Qadr is?

لَيْلَةُ الْقَدْرِ خَيْرٌ مِّنْ أَلْفِ شَهْرٍ
The Night of Qadr is better than a thousand months.

تَنَزَّلُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ وَالرُّوحُ فِيهَا بِإِذْنِ رَبِّهِم مِّن كُلِّ أَمْرٍ
Therein come down the angels and the Spirit by Allah's permission, will all affairs

سَلَامٌ هِيَ حَتَّىٰ مَطْلَعِ الْفَجْرِ
Peace!...This until the rise of morn!

~ Meaning of Night of Qadr ~

حدثنا علي بن أحمد بن موسى - رضي الله عنه - قال: حدثنا أحمد بن يحيى بن زكريا القطان، قال: حدثنا محمد بن العباس بن بسام، قال: حدثني محمد بن أبي السري قال: حدثنا أحمد بن عبدالله بن يونس، عن سعد بن طريف الكناني، عن الاصبغ بن نباتة عن علي بن أبي طالب عليه السلام قال: قال لي رسول الله صلى الله عليه واله: ياعلي أتدري ما معنى ليلة القدر؟ فقلت: لا يارسول الله، فقال صلى الله عليه واله: إن الله تبارك وتعالى قدر فيها ماهو كائن إلى يوم القيامة فكان فيما قدر عزوجل ولايتك وولاية الائمة من ولدك إلى يوم القيامة

Narrated Ali bin Ahmad bin Moosa, from Ahmad bin Yahya bin Zakariya al-Qitan, from Mohammad bin al-Abbas bin basam, from Mohammad bin abi al-Sari, from Ahmad bin Abdullah bin Yunus, from Sad bin Tareef al-Kanani, from Asbagh bin Nabatah, from Ali bin Abi Talib (as):

Ali bin Abi Talib (as) said, "The Messenger of Allah (saww) said to me, 'O Ali (as), do you know what is the meaning of 'Night of Qadr'?

[Imam Ali (as)] said, "No, O Messenger of Allah (saww)" [Imam Ali (as) said No, for our learning, else these narrations would not have reached us].

The Messenger of Allah (saww) then said, "Allah the Blessed and the High, decreed (decided/ordained) in this night all that is going to happen till the day of Qayamat. And Allah (swt) decreed (decided/ordained) Your Wilayat and Wilayat of the Imam's from your progeny till the day of qayamat."

[Source: Maani al-Akhbar - Sheikh Sadooq, Vol. 2, Chapter. Meaning of night of Qadr, Hadees. 1]

حدثنا أبي - رحمه الله - قال: حدثنا سعد بن عبدالله، قال: حدثنا محمد بن الحسين بن أبي طالب، عن محمد بن عبيد بن مهران، عن صالح بن عقبة، عن المفضل بن عمر، قال: ذكر عند أبي عبدالله عليه السلام إنا أنزلناه في ليلة القدر  قال ما أبين فضلها على الشهور ، قال قلت : وأى شئ فضلها ؟ قال نزلت ولاية امير المؤمنين عليه السلام فيها ، قلت في ليلة القدر التى ترتجيها في شهر رمضان ؟ قال نعم هى ليلة القدر قدرت فيها السموات والارض ، وقدرت ولاية أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام فيها

Narrated my father, from Sad bin Abdullah, from Mohammad bin al-Husain bin Abi Talib, from Mohammad bin  Ubaid bin Mehran, from Saleh bin Aqabah, from al-Mufazzal bin Amr:

"The verse 'We have indeed revealed this (Quran) in the Night of Qadr'[97:1] was mentioned in the presence of Aba Abdillah Imam Sadiq (as). Imam Sadiq (as) said, " How evident(clear) is the merit of this night above the other months" 

I said, "And what is its merit? Imam Sadiq (as) said, "Wilayat of Amir al-Momineen (as) descended (came down) in this night.

I said. "The night of Qadr which is in the month of Ramazan?" Imam (as) said, "Yes, It is the Night of Qadr, in which the skies and the earth is decreed (decided/ordained) and Wilayat of Amir al-Momineen was decreed (decided/ordained) in this night."

[Source: Maani al-Akhbar - Sheikh Sadooq, Vol. 2, Chapter. Meaning of night of Qadr, Hadees. 2]


~ Wahy (Revelation) in the house of Ali (as) and Fatema (sa) ~

قال: وفي هذا المعنى ما رواه الشيخ أبو جعفر الطوسي قدس الله روحه عن رجاله عن عبد الله بن عجلان السكوني قال: قال: سمعت أبا جعفر عليه السلام يقول: بيت علي وفاطمة من حجرة رسول الله صلوات الله عليهم، وسقف بيتهم عرش رب العالمين وفي قعر بيوتهم فرجة مكشوطة إلى العرش معراج الوحي والملائكة تنزل عليهم بالوحي صباحا ومساء، وفي كل ساعة وطرفة عين، والملائكة لا ينقطع فوجهم، فوج ينزل وفوج يصعد، وإن الله تبارك وتعالى كشط لابراهيم عليه السلام عن السماوات حتى أبصر العرش وزاد الله في قوة ناظره، وإن الله زاد في قوة ناظرة محمد وعلى فاطمة والحسن والحسين صلوات الله عليهم وكانوا يبصرون العرش ولا يجدون لبيوتهم سقفا غير العرش، فبيوتهم مسقفة بعرش الرحمن، ومعارج معراج الملائكة والروح فوج بعد فوج لا انقطاع لهم وما من بيت من بيوت الائمة منا إلا وفيه معراج الملائكة لقول الله: " تنزل الملائكة والروح فيها بإذن ربهم بكل أمر سلام " قال: قلت: من كل أمر ؟ قال: بكل أمر قلت: هذا التنزيل ؟ قال نعم


Narrated by Shaikh Abu Jafar Toosi from his chain of narrators from Ajlaan al-Sakooni who said,

I heard Abu Jafar Imam Baqir (as) saying, "The House of Ali (as) and Fatema (sa) is from the room of the Prophet (saww). And the roof of their house is the throne of the Lord of the worlds [Arsh Rabul Aalimeen]. And in the bottom of their house there is a opening reaching the Throne - the place of ascension of the revelation and the angels descending upon them with revelations in the morning and evening and in every hour and in every blink of the eye. And the groups of the angels do not stop (are continuous), a group coming down and a group ascending. Verily Allah (swt), removed the covering of the heavens for Ibraheem (as) such that he saw the throne (Arsh) and Allah (swt) increased the power of his sight. And indeed Allah (swt) increased the power of sight of Mohammad (saww), Ali (as), Fatema (sa), al-Hasan (as) and al-Husain (as) and they all were seeing the throne (Arsh) and they did not find any other roof of their house other than the Arsh, because their house was roofed with the throne (Arsh of Rahmaah), and the place of ascension of the angels and the soul (Rooh), group after group continuously coming, and there is no house from the houses of the Imam's (as) but that it is a place of ascension of the angels, as the saying of Allah (swt), "Therein come down the angels and the Spirit by Allah's permission, will all affairs.".

I (the narrator) said, "With all affairs"? Imam (as) said, "With all the affairs".

I (the narrator) said, "This revelation (Quran)"? Imam (as) said, "Yes".
 
[Source: Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 25, Pg. 97]


The verses of this Surah are quite clear in their meaning. And this very chapter and specially the verse about descending of the angels is used by the Imam's in proving their Imamat and Khilafat after the Prophet (saww).

Quoting a couple of narrations on the Tafseer of this Sura:

وبهذا الاسناد، عن أبي جعفر (عليه السلام) قال: قال الله عزوجل في ليلة القدر " فيها يفرق كل أمر حكيم " يقول: ينزل فيها كل أمر حكيم، والمحكم ليس بشيئين، إنما هو شئ واحد، فمن حكم بما ليس فيه اختلاف، فحكمه من حكم الله عزوجل، ومن حكم بأمر فيه أختلاف فرأي أنه مصيب فقد حكم بحكم الطاغوت إنه لينزل في ليلة القدر إلى ولي الامر تفسير الامور سنة سنة، يؤمر فيها في أمر نفسه بكذا وكذا، وفي أمر الناس بكذا وكذا، وإنه ليحدث لولي الامر سوى ذلك كل يوم علم الله عزوجل الخاص والمكنون العجيب المخزون، مثل ما ينزل في تلك الليلة من الامر، ثم قرأ: " ولو أن ما في الارض من شجرة أقلام والبحر يمده من بعده سبعة أبحر ما نفدت كلمات الله إن الله عزيز حكيم

Through the same chain of narrators it is narrated from abu Ja‘far (as) who has said the following.

"Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, has said about the Night of Determination, ". . . every absolute command coming from Us becomes distinguishable." (44:4) He has spoken of absolute and strong command. Absolute and strong command is not two things. It is only one thing. One who judges without disharmony and differences his judgment is of the judgment of Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High. Whoever would judge in a disharmonious manner, with differences and considers it as the rightful way of judging he has judged with the judgment of the devil.

"It is certain that on the Night of Determination the explanation and clarification of all issues of the year comes to the man who possesses Divine authority. On that Night the Wali al-’Amr (the man who possesses Divine authority) receives commands about his self, for so and so, and about the affairs of the people in so and so. It also is certain that for the man with Divine authority, besides this, every year, there comes the knowledge of Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High. (There comes to him) the exclusive knowledge, the hidden, the wonderful and the treasured knowledge of Allah. It comes in the Night of Determination just as the commands do." Then he recited. "If all the trees in the earth were pens and the ocean, with seven more oceans, were ink still these could not suffice to record all the Words of Allah. Allah is Majestic and All-wise." (31:27).

[Source: Al-Kafi, Vol. 1 Pg. 248]


قال لم يمت رسول الله (صلى الله عليه وآله) إلا حافظا لجملة وتفسيره، قلت فالذي كان يأتيه في ليالي القدر علم ما هو؟ قال: الامر واليسر فيما كان قد علم، قال السائل: فما يحدث لهم في ليالي القدر علم سوى ما علموا؟ قال: هذا مما امروا بكتمانه، ولا يعلم تفسير ما سألت عنه إلا الله عزوجل.
قال السائل: فهل يعلم الاوصياء ما لا يعلم الانبياء؟ قال: لا وكيف يعلم وصي غير علم ما اوصي إليه، قال السائل: فهل يسعنا أن نقول: إن أحدا من الوصاة يعلم ما لا يعلم الآخر؟ قال: لا لم يمت نبي إلا وعلمه في جوف وصيه وإنما تنزل الملائكة والروح في ليلة القدر بالحكم الذي يحكم به بين العباد، قال السائل، و ما كانوا علموا ذلك الحكم؟ قال: بلى قد علموه ولكنهم لا يستطيعون إمضاء شئ منه حتى يؤمروا في ليالي القدر كيف يصنعون إلى السنة المقبلة، قال السائل: يا أبا جعفر لا أستطيع إنكار هذا؟ قال أبوجعفر (عليه السلام): من أنكره فليس منا


The Imam said, "The Messenger of Allah, did not die without knowing a whole of knowledge with its interpretation."

The man said, "What was that which that would come to him in the ‘Night of Determination’?"

The Imam said, "It was the command and ease in what he already knew."

The man questioning said, "What then happens to them in the ‘Night of Determination’ is it a knowledge other than what they knew before."

The Imam said, "This is what they are commanded not to tell to anyone. No one knows the interpretation of what you just asked except Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High.

The man questioning asked, "Do the executors of the will know what the prophets did not know?" The Imam said, "No, because how would the executor of the will would know what is other than what is willed for."

The man asked, "Can we say that what one executor of the will may know, may not be known to another executor of the will?"

The Imam said, "No, because no prophet dies before his knowledge is transferred into the executor of his will. The angels and the Spirit descend in the ‘Night of Determination’ with the judgment with which they judge among the people." The man asked, "Is it that they did not know that judgment?"

The Imam said, "Yes, they knew it but they could not approve anything of it until they were commanded in the ‘Night of Determination’ how to implement and accomplish them until the next year."

The man said, "O abu Ja‘far I can not deny this."

The Imam said, "Those who deny it is not from us."

[Source: Al-Kafi, Vol. 1 Pg. 251]