Wilayat of AhleBait (as) & Tafweez

Also read the authentic narrations at the following link on the authority and power of the Imam's (as) over life and death and the status of the AhlulBait (as):



Imam Reza (as) on issue of Ghulw:

Quoting only a part of a very lengthy narration:

إذ يعلموا أنه القادر بنفسه الغني بذاته، الذي ليست قدرته مستعارة ولا غناه مستفادا، والذي من شاء أفقره ومن شاء أغناه، ومن شاء أعجزه بعد القدرة، وأفقره بعد الغنى، فنظروا إلى عبد قد اختصه الله بقدرة ليبين بها فضله عنده، وآثر بكرامته ليوجب بها حجته على خلقه، وليجعل ما أتاه من ذلك ثوابا على طاعته، وباعثا على اتباع أمره، ومؤمنا عباده المكلفين من غلظ من نصبه عليهم حجة ولهم قدوة

"It is so because they do not realize that God is All-powerful on his own and Needless by his self. He is the One whose might/power is not borrowed from any one and his needlessness is not due to help from any one."

"He is the one who makes poor whomsoever He wills and makes rich whomsoever He wills and make whomsoever He will incapable after having ability and make whomsoever imporvished after being rich."

"They saw a God’s selected servant, to whom He gave a particular power so that they may realize his gracefulness in God’s sight. God gave him some kind of miracle, so that people could realize that he is proof of God’s might; so that God may make that gentleman’s greatness a reward of His obedience and also make him a means of His obedience; so that God may, by appointing such a graceful gentleman their leader, protect His responsible servants from any doubt as to who is God’s Hujjat and who is their role model."

Then Imam Reza (as) gives an example and then says the following:


كذلك هؤلاء لما وجدوا أمير المؤمنين عبدا أكرمه الله ليبين فضله، ويقيم حجته، فصغروا عندهم خالقهم أن يكون جعل عليا له عبدا، وأكبروا عليا عن أن يكون الله عز وجل له ربا، فسموه بغير اسمه فنهاهم هو وأتباعه من أهل ملته وشيعته وقالوا لهم: يا هؤلاء أن عليا وولده عباد مكرمون مخلوقون ومدبرون لا يقدرون إلا على ما أقدرهم عليه لله رب العالمين، ولا يملكون إلا ما ملكهم، ولا يملكون موتا ولا حياة ولا نشورا، ولا قبضا ولا بسطا، ولا حركة ولا سكونا إلا ما أقدرهم عليه وطوقهم، وأن ربهم وخالقهم يجل عن صفات المحدثين، ويتعالى عن نعت المحدودين، وأن من اتخذهم أو واحدا منهم أربابا من دون الله فهو من الكافرين 
وقد ضل سواء السبيل

"Likewise, this community has found Amir Al Momineen (as) a chosen servant of Allah. Almighty Allah has, through His special mercy, made him honorable so that he may show the creation the greatness of Almighty Allah and may establish His Proof before them. So, in the view of these people, their Creator is unable to create Ali (a.s.) and that Ali (a.s.) cannot be His slave.and raised Ali (a.s.) above that Allah is his Lord. With this view, they gave God’s Name to this slave of God."

"When Amirul Momineen Ali (a.s.) and his true follower Shias saw this faulty attitude of this group, they prevented them from doing so. They told them that Ali (a.s.) and his pious progeny are the honored servants of the Almighty Allah. God has given them grace but they by themselves are not able to do anything, except what God has given them power to do. They do not have anything, except which God has granted them. They have no say in the matter of life, death and rising after death, need, needlessness, movement, stagnancy, except on what God has granted them power to do. His Lord and Sustainer and Creator is higher than all the virtues of virtuous people and He is Higher than what anyone can ever imagine. Anyone who considers all of them or any one of them god, except Only One God, has entered infidelity as he has gone wayward"

[Source: Al-Ehtejaaj, Vol. 2, Pg. 232-233]


Tafweed and Incident of Husain bin Rooh:

منها ما أخبرني به الحسين بن عبيد الله، عن أبي عبد الله الحسين بن علي بن سفيان البزوفري رحمه الله، قال: حدثني الشيخ أبو القاسم الحسين بن روح رضي الله عنه قال: اختلف أصحابنا في التفويض وغيره، فمضيت إلى أبي طاهر بن بلال  في أيام استقامته فعرفته الخلاف، فقال: أخرني فأخرته أياما فعدت إليه فأخرج إلي حديثا باسناده إلى  أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال:
إذا أراد [الله] أمرا عرضه على رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم، ثم أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام [وسائر الأئمة]  واحدا بعد واحد إلى (أن)  ينتهي إلىصاحب الزمان عليه السلام ثم يخرج إلى الدنيا، وإذا أراد الملائكة أن يرفعوا إلى الله عز وجل عملا عرض على صاحب الزمان عليه السلام، ثم (يخرج)  على واحد [بعد]  واحد إلى أن يعرض على رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم، ثم يعرض على الله عز وجل فما نزل  من الله فعلى أيديهم، وما عرج إلى الله فعلى أيديهم، وما استغنوا عن الله عز وجل طرفة عين
.


What has been narrated to me by Hussein bin Ubaid ullah from Abu Abdullah al Hussein bin Ali, he said I was told by Sheikh Abu ul Qasim Hussin bin Rooh, who said that

"There was a difference of opinion about Tafweed in our companions etc. So I went to Abu Tahir bin Bilal in his days of steadfastness, and informed him about this. He said: Wait for some days. I went to him again and he narrated a narration with his chain to Imam Abu Abdullah who said:

When Allah decides for something, he presents that to Prophet asws, then Imam Ali asws, and then All Aimmah asws one after another till it reaches the one of Your era, and then it is given to this world. And when Angels decide to raise something to Allah, they present it to the Chief of Your era, then it pases from one to other (Imam) till it reaches Prophet asws. Then it is presented to Allah. So What is revealed from Allah, it is through their hands, and what is raised to Allah, it is through their hands. And they (Aimmah asws) are not free of him even for glimpse of time."

[Source: Al-Ghayba - Sheikh Toosi, Pg. 387]

Taken from: http://ahlubait.wordpress.com/2013/02/16/tafweed/

Another similar narration:

حدثنا محمد بن عيسى عن يونس بن عبدالرحمن عن بعض اصحابه عن ابى عبدالله عليه السلام قال سمعته يقول ليس شئ يخرج من الله حتى يبدأ برسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله ثم بامير المؤمنين ثم واحدا بعد واحد لكى لايكون اخرنا اعلم من اولنا

Narrated Muhammad bin Isa, from Yunus bin Abd al-Rahman, from some companions from Abi Abdillah Imam Sadiq (as):

"Nothing comes from Allah (swt) unless its beginning from the Prophet (saww) then Amir al-Mumineen (as) and then one by one and our last one is not more knowledgeable than our first."

[Source: Basaair al-Darajat, Pg. 116]


Verse 1:

إِنَّمَا وَلِيُّكُمُ اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا الَّذِينَ يُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَاةَ وَيُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَهُمْ رَاكِعُونَ

“Your Wali are Allah, His Messenger, and the believers, those who establish regular prayers and give charity while they bow down.” [Quran 5:55]


Important to note here that the word Wali has come in the above verse only once and hence its implication will be the same for Allah (swt), his Prophet (saww) and the Imam’s (as).

This is also proven from the following Hadees which clearly state that the Wilayat of the Imam’s (as) is the Wilayat of Allah (swt)”:

محمد بن يحيى، عن سلمة بن الخطاب، عن علي بن سيف، عن العباس بن عامر، عن أحمد بن رزق الغمشاني، عن محمد بن عبدالرحمن، عن أبي عبدالله (عليه السلام) قال: ولايتنا ولاية الله التي لم يبعث نبيا قط إلا بها


Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Salama ibn al-Khattab from Ali ibn Sayf from al-‘Abbass ibn ‘Amir from Ahmad ibn Rizq al-Ghumushani from Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Rahman from abu ‘Abd Allah (as) who has said the following.

"Our Walaya is the Walaya of Allah without which no prophet was ever send."

[Source: Al-Kaafi, Vol.1 Pg. 437]

Below are 3 more similar narrations from the book Basair Al Darajaat.

حدثنا يعقوب بن يزيد عن يحيى بن المبارك عن عبدالله بن جبلة عن حميد بن شعيب السبيعى عن جابر قال قال ابوجعفر عليه السلام ولايتنا ولاية الله التى لم يبعث نبيا قط الا بها.

حدثنا محمد بن الحسين عن وسيب بن حفص عن ابى بصير قال قال ابوجعفر عليه السلام ولايتنا ولاية الله التى لم يبعث الله نبيا قط الا بها.

حدثنا حمزة بن يعلى عن محمد بن الفضيل عن ابى حمزة الثمالى عن ابى جعفر عليه السلام انه قال ولايتنا ولاية الله التى لم يبعث نبيا قط الا بها.


[Source: Basari Al-Darajat Vol.1 Chapter.9 Pg. 84]

http://www.alseraj.net/maktaba/kotob/hadith/basaer/maktaba/Hadith/Bsaer/a84.htm


The above verse of the Holy Quran, followed by the supporting Hadees clearly show that the Wilayah of the AhlulBait (as) is the Wilayah of Allah (swt) the only obvious difference being that the Wilayah of Allah (swt) is his own while the Wilayah of the AhlulBait (as) is granted by Allah (swt).

Now if someone sees this as Tafweez (delegation of creation and sustenance by Allah (swt) to the Imams (as) -which is condemned by the Imams (as) ), then the following verse clarifies this issue.

Verse 2:

وَمَا تَشَاءُونَ إِلَّا أَن يَشَاءَ اللَّهُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا

“But ye will not, except as Allah wills; for Allah is full of Knowledge and Wisdom” [Quran 76:30]

 

This verse clearly answers the objection of Tafweez. It simply and clearly proves that whatever the AhlulBait (as) do is always as per and under the will of Allah (swt) and not independent of Allah (swt) and hence not Tafweez.

This very clear narration on Tafweez makes things crystal clear:

(Only quoting a part of a lengthy narration)

ثم قال : وجئت تسأله عن مقالة المفوضة ، كذبوا، بل قلوبنا أوعية لمشية الله ، فإذا شاء شئنا ، والله يقول :وما تشآؤون إلاأن يشآء الله

Imam Hasan Askar (as) said,

"You have come to ask about the Mufaw'wiza. They (Mufaw'wiza) have lied. But our hearts are containers of the Will of Allah (swt), so when Allah (swt) wills, We will. And Allah (swt) has said, "And you will not will, but as Allah Wills" [Quran 76:30]

[Source: Al-Gaibha - Sheikh Toosi, Pg. 159]


The following set of Hadees further support this:

حدثنا محمد بن جعفر قال حدثنا محمد بن أحمد عن أحمد بن محمد السياري عن فلان عن أبي الحسن عليه السلام قال: إن الله جعل قلوب الأئمة موردا لإرادته فإذا شاء الله شيئا شاؤه وهو قوله وما تشاؤن إلا يشاء الله رب العالمين

Abal Hasan (Imam Kazim ) (as) said:

“Verily Allah (swt) has made the hearts of the Imam’s (as) the source/place of this Will. If Allah (swt) wills something, They (as) also Will the same. And it is as He said, “But ye will not, except as Allah wills.”


[Source: Tafseer Al-Qummi Vol.2 Pg. 409]

Another narration on the same lines:

ومنه يرفعه إلى ابن أبي عمير عن المفضل عن أبي عبدالله عليه السلام قال : لو اذن لنا أن نعلم الناس حالنا عند الله ومنزلتنا منه لما احتملتم ، فقال له : في العلم ؟ فقال : العلم أيسر من ذلك ، إن الامام وكر  لارادة الله عزوجل لا يشاء إلا من يشاء الله


Mufazzal narrates from Aba Abdillah (as):

“If we were permitted to make the people know our situation near Allah (swt) and our status from Him, you will not (be able to) bear/carry it.”

Mufazzal said, “In (about) knowledge?”

Imam (as) says, “Knowledge is the easiest of that. Verily, Imam (as) is the place (nest) of the Will of Allah (swt), They (as) do not will but what Allah (swt) Wills.”


[Source: Bihar Al-Anwar, Vol. 25 Pg. 385]
And the below narration clarifies things further:

الحسين بن محمد الاشعري، عن معلى بن محمد، عن أبي الفضل عبدالله بن إدريس، عن محمد بن سنان قال: كنت عند أبي جعفر الثاني عليه السلام فأجريت اختلاف الشيعة، فقال: يا محمد إن الله تبارك وتعالى لم يزل متفردا بوحدانيته ثم خلق محمدا وعليا وفاطمة، فمكثوا ألف دهر، ثم خلق جميع الاشياء، فأشهدهم خلقها وأجرى طاعتهم عليها وفوض أمورها إليهم، فهم يحلون ما يشاؤون ويحرمون ما يشاؤون ولن يشاؤوا إلا أن يشاء الله تبارك وتعالى، ثم قال: يا محمد هذه الديانة التي من تتدينها مرق ومن تخلف عنها محق، ومن لزمها لحق، خذها إليك يا محمد

Al-Husayn ibn Muhammad al-Ash’ari has narrated from Mu‘alla ibn Muhammad from abu al-Fadl ‘Abd Allah ibn Idris from Muhammad ibn Sinan who has said the following.

"Once I was in the presence of abu Ja‘far (as), the second, and I mentioned the differences among the Shi‘a."

The Imam (as) said, "O Muhammad, Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, is One eternally. He created Muhammad (saww), Ali (as) and Fatima (sa). They were there for a thousand Dahr (time less time in philosophy, a turn). Then He created all other things. He made them to witness the creation of all other things, made obedience to them obligatory and gave control (Fawaz) of the affairs of the creation. They can, thus, make lawful whatever they would wish and unlawful whatever they would wish and they would never wish anything unless Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, would wish."

He then said, "O Muhammad, this is a religion that if overdone, it would lead to extremism and if ignored, it would be degradation and those who would hold to it properly would have proper contact. Keep it with you, O Muhammad."

[Source: Al-Kafi, Vol. 1 Pg. 441]

The above narration makes it absolutely clear that the belief of Tafweez is condemned by the Imam's (as) is only when it is believed that the actions of the AhlulBait (as) are independent of the Will of Allah (swt).

So if the Imam’s (as) were to give life to the dead, or to create a lion out of a picture, then as per the above verse of the Holy Quran and the above narrations, this will always be as per the will of the Allah (swt) and hence cannot be called Tafweez (delegation of authority from Allah (swt) to the Imam's (as)).


Verse 3:

اطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَ أَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَ أُولِي الْأَمْرِ مِنْكُمْ

"Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger, and those charged with authority among you" [Quran 4:59]

The question that this verses poses is “Authority over what matter?” What is the ‘Amr’ in this verse? The below Hadees answers this question. 

و فيه و قد ذكر عليه السلام الحجج قال السائل: من هؤلاء الحجج؟ قال: هم الرسول الله و من حل محله من أصفياء الله و هم ولاة الأمر الذين قال الله فيهم: «أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَ أَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَ أُولِي الْأَمْرِ مِنْكُمْ» و قال فيهم: «وَ لَوْ رَدُّوهُ إِلَى الرَّسُولِ وَ إِلى‏ أُولِي الْأَمْرِ مِنْهُمْ لَعَلِمَهُ الَّذِينَ يَسْتَنْبِطُونَهُ مِنْهُمْ» قال السائل، ما ذاك الأمر؟ قال على عليه السلام، الذي به تنزل الملئكة في الليلة التي يفرق فيها كل امر حكيم من خلق أو رزق و أجل و عمل و حيوة و موت، و علم غيب السموات و الأرض، و المعجزات التي لا ينبغي الا الله له و أصفيائه و السفرة بينه و بين خلقه

The person said, "Who are these Hujjaj?"

Imam Ali (as) said, "They are Prophet of Allah (saww) and those who succeeded him who are selected by Allah (swt) and they are the Wali-Amr (gaurdians) regarding them Allah (swt) says,

"Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger, and those charged with authority among you" [Quran 4:59]

And says,

"If they had only referred it to the Messenger, or to those charged with authority among them, the proper investigators would have Tested it from them" [Quran 4:83]

The person said, "What is that Amr?"

Imam Ali (as) said, "That (Amr) is with which the angels descend in the night in which all the wise matters (Amr) are distinguished, from creation (Khalq), livelihood (Rizq) and life and death and the unseen knowledge of the heavens and the earth and the Miracles that is not for any one but Allah and his selected ones and he means between Him and this creations." 

[Source: Tafseer Noor Al-Saqlain Vol.1 Pg. 507, Al-Ehtejaaj Vol. 1 Pg. 252]


Verse 4:

فَتَبَارَكَ اللَّهُ أَحْسَنُ الْخَالِقِينَ


"So blessed be Allah, the best of the creators" [Quran 23:14]

The above verse of the Holy Quran clearly speak out that  Allah (swt) is not just the Creator... Allah (swt) is the “Best Creator".

The below narration clarified things further:


قلت: جعلت فداك وغير الخالق الجليل خالق؟ قال: إن الله تبارك وتعالى يقول: (تبارك الله أحسن الخالقين) فقد أخبر أن في عباده خالقين منهم عيسى ابن مريم، خلق من الطين كهيئة الطير بإذن الله فنفخ فيه فصار طائرا بإذن الله، والسامري خلق لهم عجلا جسدا له خوار

Fath bin Yazeed says to Imam Raza (as), "May I be sacrified on You. Is there any creator other than Great Creator (Allah)"?

Imam Raza (as) said, "The Almighty Allah (swt) says: ' So blessed be Allah, the best of the creators'. He (Allah) has informed that amoung his creations are creators, from among them is Isa bin Maryam (as), who created from clay the body of a bird by the will of Allah (swt) then breathed into it and it became a bird by the will of Allah (swt) and (from among them is) Samiri who created for them a calf, its body mooing" ...

(Part of a long Hadees, only the relevant porting quoted here)

[Source: Al-Tauheed, Sheikh Sadooq Pg.63]

Hence its clearly from the above verse of the Holy Quran and Hadees from the Imam (as) that even the AhlulBait (as) can be addressed as creators.

Read at the blow link the authority of Imam Raza (as) in creating a lion out a image on a carpet.
 

Verse 5:
وَ ما آتاكُمُ الرَّسُولُ فَخُذُوهُ وَ ما نَهاكُمْ عَنْهُ فَانْتَهُوا

"And what the Messenger (of Allah) would bring you, you must take and what he would prohibit you, you must desist from." [59:7]

Read the below narration which defines the scope of the Wilayat (authority) given to the AhleBait (as) by Allah.

حدثنا بعض اصحابه عن محمد بن الحسن عن على بن النعمان عن ابن مسكان عن اسماعيل بن عبد العزيز قال قاللى جعفر بن محمد ان رسول الله صلى الله عليه واله آان يفوض إليه ان الله تبارك وتعالى فوض إلى سليمان ملكه فقال هذا عطاؤنا فامنن أو امسك بغير حساب وان الله فوض إلى محمد نبيه فقال ما اتيكم الرسول فخذوه وما نهيكم عنه فانتهوا فقال رجل انما آان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله مفوضا إليه في الزرع والضرع فلوى جعفر عليه السلام عنه عنقه مغضبا فقال في آل شئ والله في آل شئ.


It has been narrated to us by one of his companions, from Muhammad Bin Al-Hassan, from Ali Bin No’man, from Ibn Muskaan, from Ismail Bin Abdul Aziz who said:

Abu Ja’far Bin Muhammad (as) said to me that, "The Messenger of Allah (saww) that Allah (swt) had Delegated to Him the kingdom that He had Delegated to Suleiman (as)."

He said, "This is Our free gift, therefore give freely or withhold, without reckoning [38:39], and that Allah (swt) Delegated to Muhammad (saww) His Prophet and He (swt) said, "and whatever the Rasool gives you, accept it, and from whatever he forbids you, keep back." [59:7] 

A man said, "But, was the Messenger of Allah (swt) Delegated regarding the agriculture and farming?" Abu Ja’far (as) turned His neck towards him in disapproval. He (as) said: ‘Regarding everything, by Allah (swt),regarding everything."

[Source: Basaair Al-Darajat, Vol.8, Chapter. 4, Hadees. 9]